Caernarfon Castle (Welsh: Castell Caernarfon) is a medieval building in Gwynedd, north-west Wales. There was a motte-and-bailey castle in the town of Caernarfon from the late 11th century until 1283 when King Edward I of England began replacing it with the current stone structure. The Edwardian town and castle acted as the administrative centre of north Wales and as a result the defences were built on a grand scale. There was a deliberate link with Caernarfon's Roman past – nearby is the Roman fort of Segontium – and the castle's walls are reminiscent of the Walls of Constantinople.

While the castle was under construction, town walls were built around Caernarfon. The work cost between £20,000 and £25,000 from the start until the end of work in 1330. Despite Caernarfon Castle's external appearance of being mostly complete, the interior buildings no longer survive and many of the building plans were never finished. The town and castle were sacked in 1294 when Madog ap Llywelyn led a rebellion against the English. Caernarfon was recaptured the following year. During the Glyndŵr Rising of 1400–1415, the castle was besieged. When the Tudor dynasty ascended to the English throne in 1485, tensions between the Welsh and English began to diminish and castles were considered less important. As a result, Caernarfon Castle was allowed to fall into a state of disrepair.

Despite its dilapidated condition, during the English Civil War Caernarfon Castle was held by Royalists, and was besieged three times by Parliamentarian forces. This was the last time the castle was used in war. Caernarfon Castle was neglected until the 19th century when the state funded repairs. In 1911, Caernarfon Castle was used for the investiture of the Prince of Wales, and again in 1969. It is part of the World Heritage Site "Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd".

Architecture
Segontium
Fortification / Museum / Archaeological site

Segontium is a Roman fort for a Roman auxiliary force, located on the outskirts of Caernarfon in Gwynedd, north Wales.

It probably takes its name from the nearby River Seiont, and may be related to the Segontiaci, a British tribe mentioned by Julius Caesar. The fort was founded by Agricola in 77 or 78 AD after he had conquered the Ordovices. It was the main Roman fort in the north of Roman Wales and was designed to hold about a thousand auxiliary infantry. It was connected by a Roman road to the Roman legionary base at Chester, Deva Victrix. Unlike the more recent Caernarfon Castle alongside the Seiont estuary, Segontium is located on higher ground giving a good view of the Menai Straits.

The original timber defences were rebuilt in stone in the first half of the 2nd century AD. An inscription on an aqueduct from the time of the Emperor Septimius Severus indicates that at that time it was garrisoned by Cohors I Sunicorum, which would have originally been levied among the Sunici of Gallia Belgica.

The site is now cut through by the A4085 road to Beddgelert, but the remains of most of the buildings are preserved. The visitor centre and small museum exhibiting finds made in and around the fort is now closed. Guidebooks can be bought from other Cadw sites, including Caernarfon Castle. Outside the fort, the remains of a civilian settlement have been found, together with a Roman temple of Mithras, the Caernarfon Mithraeum and a cemetery.

Segontium is implicit in the name of the surrounding town, because "caer" means fort. The name of the town of Caernarfon is the corrupted form of "Caer yn ar-Fon", which means "Fort in (the land) opposite Mon".

The Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd refers to a UNESCO-designated site of patrimony located in Gwynedd, Wales.

In 1986, four castles related to the reign of King Edward I of England were proclaimed collectively as a World Heritage Site, as outstanding examples of fortifications and military architecture built in the 13th century.

Sites designated were:

  1. Beaumaris Castle, Anglesey
  2. Caernarfon Castle, Caernarfon
  3. Conwy Castle, Conwy
  4. Harlech Castle, Harlech

In addition to these, Edward I entirely built or rebuilt four castles in north and mid-Wales: Aberystwyth, Builth, Flint and Rhuddlan. He also repaired the Welsh castles of Castell y Bere, Criccieth, Dolwyddelan, and Caergwrle. Chirk, Denbigh, Hawarden, Holt, and Ruthin were lordship castles built for Edward.

Architecture
Fort Belan
Fortification

Fort Belan (alternate: Belan Fort; pronounced: Bell-ann) is a coastal fortress in North Wales. It is located opposite Abermenai Point, at the south-western end of the Menai Strait, on the coast of Gwynedd, in the parish of Llanwnda. Situated at the tip of the Dinlle Peninsula, the windblown, north-westernmost point of the Welsh mainland, the fort is physically cut off twice a day by the incoming sea. Of geographic importance because of its location, Fort Belan is the access point to both the north Wales coast and to Liverpool, England. It is said to have cost £30,000 to build the fort.

The Black Boy Inn (or just Black Boy) in the Royal Town of Caernarfon in Gwynedd, Wales is a hotel and public house which is thought to date back to 1522, making it one of the oldest surviving inns in North Wales. It is within the medieval walls of Caernarfon, a few hundred yards from Caernarfon Castle.

Formerly the 'King's Arms' and the 'Fleur de Lys', one landlord bought the other out and created the Black Boy Inn as it is today. Prior to 1828, the 'King's Arms' was known as the 'Black Boy'. The Inn signs each show a 'black buoy' on one side and a 'black boy' on the other.

The Inn's name has caused controversy and there are least three theories to explain its name. One is believed to come from a 'black buoy' which existed in the harbour in the early days of the Inn. Another refers to the nickname given to Charles II by his mother because of the darkness of his skin and eyes, as well as the fact that Royalists met at the Inn secretly at that time. Later, the place became the local fishermen's favourite drinking place and the name of ‘black boy’ may come from this period.

The Old Church of St Nidan, Llanidan is a medieval church, closed and partly in ruins, in the community of Llanidan, in Anglesey, north Wales. The first church on this site, close to the Menai Strait, was established in the 7th century by St Nidan, the confessor of the monastery at Penmon, Anglesey. The oldest parts of the present structure date from the 14th century. In about 1500, the church was enlarged when a second nave was added on the north side; an arcade of six arches was also built between the two naves. Between 1839 and 1843, a new church was built nearby to serve the local community, partly because of the cost of repairing the old church; much of the old church was thereafter demolished, leaving only part of the western end and the central arcade. The decision was condemned at the time by Harry Longueville Jones, a clergyman and antiquarian, who lamented the "melancholy fate" of what he called "one of the largest and most important [churches] in the island of Anglesey". Other appreciative comments have been made about the church both before and after its partial demolition.

After the new church was opened, the old church was used as a chapel for funerals for a time. It has been restored by the owners of the adjoining house, Plas Llanidan, and is occasionally open to the public. The remaining parts of the church are a Grade II* listed building, a national designation given to "particularly important buildings of more than special interest", in particular because St Nidan's is regarded as "a good example of a simple medieval rural church, enriched by 15th-century additions".

In the 12th century, Gerald of Wales said that the church possessed a curious stone shaped like a thigh that would always return by the next day no matter how far away it was taken. A Norman earl, he said, had chained it to a large rock and thrown it into the sea, only for the stone to return to the church by the following morning. A sandstone chest containing bone fragments, possibly relics of a saint, was found buried underneath the altar. The reliquary and the church's 13th-century font are now to be found in the new church.

St Baglan's Church, Llanfaglan, is a redundant church in the parish of Llanfaglan, Gwynedd, Wales. It has been designated by Cadw as a Grade I listed building, and is under the care of the Friends of Friendless Churches. It stands in an isolated position in a field some 150 metres (164 yd) from a minor road.

St Nidan's Church, Llanidan is a 19th-century parish church near the village of Brynsiencyn, in Anglesey, north Wales. Built between 1839 and 1843, it replaced the Old Church of St Nidan, Llanidan, which needed significant repair, providing a place of Anglican worship nearer to the village than the old church. Some items were moved here from the old church, including the 13th-century font, two bells from the 14th and 15th century, and a reliquary thought to hold the remains of St Nidan. The tower at the west end has been described as "top heavy" and looking like "a water tower".

The church is still used for worship by the Church in Wales, one of five in a group of parishes in the south of Anglesey. It is a Grade II listed building, a national designation given to "buildings of special interest, which warrant every effort being made to preserve them", in particular because it is regarded as "a distinctive example of pre-archaeological gothic revival work." The 19th-century clergyman and antiquarian Harry Longueville Jones said that it had been built in a "debased barbarous style, showing neither architectural science nor taste".

Caernarfon (/kərˈnɑrvən/; Welsh: [kaɨrˈnarvɔn]) is a Royal town, community and port in Gwynedd, Wales, with a population of 9,611. It lies along the A487 road, on the east banks of the Menai Straits, opposite the Isle of Anglesey. The city of Bangor is 8.6 miles (13.8 km) to the northeast, while Snowdonia fringes Caernarfon to the east and southeast. Caernarvon and Carnarvon are rarely-used anglicised spellings of Caernarfon.

Abundant natural resources in and around the Menai Straits enabled human habitation in the Caernarfon area during pre-history. The Ordovices were the Celtic tribe documented as living in this region during classical antiquity. The Roman fort called Segontium was established in about the year 80 to subjugate the Ordovices as part of the Roman conquest of Britain. The Romans were victorious and occupied the region until their departure in the 5th century, after which Caernarfon became part of the Kingdom of Gwynedd. In the late 11th century, William I, King of England, ordered the construction of a motte-and-bailey at Caernarfon, so as to fulfill the Norman invasion of Wales.

In the 13th century, Llywelyn ap Gruffydd, ruler of Gwynedd, refused to pay homage to Edward I, King of England citing political hostilities. This prompted the English conquest of Gwynedd, and subsequent construction of Caernarfon Castle, one of the largest and most imposing fortifications built by the English in order to control Wales. In 1282 the English-style county of Caernarfonshire was established, composed of Caernarfon (the new county town) and its hinterland; and in 1284 Caernarfon was made a borough and market town, and the seat of Edward I's government in North Wales.

The ascension of the Tudor dynasty to the throne of England eased hostilities between the English and Welsh, and resulted in Caernarfon Castle falling in to a state of disrepair. However, Caernarfon continued to flourish towards its present status as a major tourist centre and seat of Gwynedd Council, with a thriving harbour and marina; Caernarfon has expanded beyond its medieval walls and experienced heavy suburbanisation. Its population includes the largest percentage of Welsh-speaking citizens anywhere in Wales. The status of Royal Borough was granted by Queen Elizabeth II in 1963, which was converted into the title of Royal Town in 1974.

The Oval is a multi-use stadium in Caernarfon, Wales. It is currently used mostly for football matches and is the home ground of Caernarfon Town F.C.. The stadium holds 3,000 people, with 250 seats.

The seats were purchased from Shrewsbury Town when they became surplus to requirements due to the demolition of Gay Meadow

The Friends of Friendless Churches is a registered charity active in England and Wales. It campaigns for and rescues redundant historic churches threatened by demolition, decay, or inappropriate conversion. To that end, as of March 2012, it owns 44 former churches or chapels, 23 of which are in England, and 21 in Wales.

The Royal Welch Fusiliers Museum is a museum dedicated to the history of the Royal Welch Fusiliers, an historic regiment of the British Army.

Caernarfon Station is the northern terminus of the narrow gauge Welsh Highland Railway, located in the town of Caernarfon. It was opened on 11 October 1997 when the line was constructed from Dinas.

The Llŷn Coastal Path is a waymarked 146 km (91 mi) long distance footpath running along the coast of the Llŷn Peninsula from Caernarfon to Porthmadog in Gwynedd, north-west Wales. A large part of the Llŷn Peninsula is designated an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.

Devised and implemented by Gwynedd County Council and the Countryside Council for Wales, the path opened in 2006, though has since been changed and improved. This work is continuing as part of the path's integration into the All Wales Coast Path, an 870 miles (1,400 km) long-distance walking route around the whole coast of Wales from Chepstow to Queensferry, due to open in 2012.

Dinas is a station on the narrow gauge Welsh Highland Railway, which was built in 1877 as the North Wales Narrow Gauge Railways Moel Tryfan Undertaking to carry dressed slate for trans-shipment to the LNWR. Passenger services ceased on 26 September 1936 until which time Dinas had been a joint station, known as Dinas Junction with the LNWR and later the LMS. In 1951, British Railways closed their part of the station but the line through the station remained open until the line from Caernarvon to Afon Wen was closed in 1964. The trackbed was subsequently developed as the Lôn Eifion tourist cycle route.

When the station was reopened on 11 October 1997, it was as the southern temporary terminus of the extended and soon to be restored Welsh Highland Railway from Caernarfon. Following reconstruction of the trackbed, the line was reopened on its original trackbed, in stages; on 7 August 2000 to Waunfawr;in 2003 to Rhyd Ddu; through the Aberglaslyn Pass to Beddgelert and Hafod-y-lyn in 2009; 26 May 2010 for Pont Croesor and finally on 4 January 2011 to Porthmadog. The official opening for the completed line was 20 April 2011. The train services are operated by the Festiniog Railway Company by its Welsh Highland Railway subsidiary.

At Dinas, the new narrow gauge platforms are built on the site of the former standard gauge platforms. Two buildings survive from the North Wales Narrow Gauge Railways era, namely the former goods shed and the original station building which has been carefully restored. Dinas station yards house the Welsh Highland Railway offices, carriage sheds and locomotive depot as well as extensive civil engineering works and sidings.

Caernarfon's town walls are a medieval defensive structure around the town of Caernarfon in North Wales. The walls were constructed between 1283 and 1292 after the foundation of Caernarfon by Edward I, alongside the adjacent castle. The walls are 734 m (2,408 ft) long and include eight towers and two medieval gatehouses. The project was completed using large quantities of labourers brought in from England; the cost of building the walls came to around £3,500, a large sum for the period. The walls were significantly damaged during the rebellion of Madog ap Llywelyn in 1294, and had to be repaired at considerable expense. Political changes in the 16th century reduced the need to maintain such defences around the town. Today the walls form part of the UNESCO world heritage site administered by Cadw. Historians Oliver Creighton and Robert Higham describe the defences as "a remarkably intact walled circuit".

Bontnewydd is an unstaffed halt on the narrow gauge Welsh Highland Railway. The halt was opened on 31 May 1999 on the petition of the villagers of Bontnewydd and is between Caernarfon and Dinas on the Lôn Eifion cycle route. The train services are operated by the Festiniog Railway Company.

Caer Lêb is a prehistoric site on the Welsh island of Anglesey, west of Brynsiencyn. Its name means "Leaven Castle". It is a low-lying site near the Afon Braint with a double row of pentangular banks (some parts now levelled) and marshy ditches. The original entrance was on the east, other gaps are modern and caused by animals. Based on the excavation of a similar site elsewhere on Anglesey, it may date from the 2nd century BCE.

Excavations in 1865 found structures within the enclosure, rectangular buildings on the east and a circular one on the south. Nothing of these can now be seen on the ground. Pottery from the 2nd century to the 4th century was found, and on the north side a layer of periwinkle shells and a mediaeval coin, under a layer of peat.

There is a parking area, sufficient for 4-5 cars, by the roadside. A footpath goes southwest on a low ridge, some 2 metres above the Afon Braint, from Caer Lêb over stiles, past the site of the former stone circle of Tre'r Dryw Bach, some 800 metres to Castell Bryn Gwyn and on to the Bryn Gwyn stones and the A4080.

500 metres north-west along the road, by Pont Sarn Las (Green Causeway Bridge), the foundations of three round houses may be visible after a dry summer. A large settlement was recorded in the 19th century, and destroyed in the 1870s by agricultural improvement.

Caernarvon railway station once served the county town of Caernarvon in Caernarvonshire, Wales, now known as Caernarfon in Gwynedd. It was on the site of Morrisons store. It was closed to passenger traffic on 5 January 1970, along with the branch from Menai Bridge (near Bangor). Following a fire that damaged the railway bridge over the Menai Strait, the branch and goods yard were temporarily reopened for freight traffic from 23 May 1970 to 30 January 1972. Following closure all the track was removed and the station completely demolished.

When opened on 1 July 1852 (named "Carnarvon") it was the terminus of the Bangor and Carnarvon Railway and later an end-on junction with the Carnarvonshire Railway and the Carnarvon and Llanberis Railway. All three companies were operated by and absorbed into the London and North Western Railway by 1871. The route of the line southwards passed through a tunnel under central Caernarfon that was converted in 1995 for road traffic. The junction for Llanberis was on the outskirts of Caernarfon. The station was renamed "Caernarvon" on 27 March 1926, but never adopted the Welsh spelling "Caernarfon" that is preferred today.

The Welsh Highland Railway's modern-day Caernarfon railway station is on the trackbed of the Carnarvonshire Railway just south of the tunnel on St Helen's Road beneath the high retaining walls of Segontium Terrace.

Caernarfon Rugby Football Club (Welsh: Clwb Rygbi Caernarfon) is a rugby union team from the town of Caernarfon, Gwynedd, North Wales. They currently play in the Welsh Rugby Union Division One North League.

The club was formed in 1973, and the grounds are located at Y Morfa, Lon Parc, Caernarfon.

The club colours are maroon and yellow.

The club has a First, a Second XV and a Youth team (Under 19). There is an extensive junior section consisting of Under 16, Under 14, Under 13, Under 12, Under 11, Under 10, Under 9 and Under 8 teams.

Afon Seiont (Welsh, meaning River Seiont in English) is a river in Gwynedd, Wales which runs into the Menai Strait.

Its source is the outflow of Llyn Padarn near Llanberis, and it flows out in a generally northwest direction. Between the outflow and the village of Llanrug it is known as the Afon Rhythallt, changing its name just after the village. Its mouth is in the town of Caernarfon, forming a natural harbour as it flows out into the Menai Strait. The Afon Nant-Peris provides the main inflow into Llyn Peris which then drains into Llyn Padarn with the addition of the waters of the Afon Arddu which drains the northern slopes of Snowdon.

The name of the Roman fort of Segontium, near Caernarfon, is based on the Latinised form of the name 'Seiont'.

A former junction station on the North Wales Narrow Gauge Railways for the main line and the Bryngwyn Branch.

The A4085 is a 20-mile road between Caernarfon and Penrhyndeudraeth in North Wales that runs through the scenic Aberglaslyn Pass. There are several locations where the road is of substandard width.

The road begins at the southern apex of a triangular one-way system in Caernarfon on the A487 (53°08′17″N 4°16′09″W / 53.1381°N 4.2693°W). It heads south, signposted for Beddgelert. As it leaves Caernarfon it passes the site of the Roman legionary fort Segontium and later crosses the Afon Seiont and the course of the Caernarfon-to-Llanberis railway. After 1.5 miles it crosses a roundabout at Caeathro. The road as far as Waunfawr is reputed to be a Roman road and is fairly straight. After Waunfawr the road joins the Gwyrfai Valley, a glaciated U-shaped valley along the west side of Snowdon. At various places along the valley it crosses and recrosses the Welsh Highland Railway. The road passes along the east shore of Llyn Cwellyn (Caernarfon's water supply), before climbing to a summit just south of Rhyd Ddu. The Welsh Highland Railway is under construction south of here towards Porthmadog and various works and construction trains can be seen alongside the road.

The summit of the pass is at Pitt's Head and then the road and railway drop to Beddgelert and the Aberglaslyn Pass, where the road is concurrent with the A498. The A4085 is the major road at the junction.

The railway can be seen again in the Aberglaslyn Pass on the east bank of the Afon Glaslyn, while the road continues along the west bank. The A4085 road diverges to the left at Pont Aberglaslyn before taking a curvaceous route mostly following old sea cliffs of the Afon Glaslyn estuary. It passes under the Welsh Highland Railway again at Nantmor. After Garreg, the road climbs over a hill and crosses the Ffestiniog Railway by level crossing. It then takes a narrow curvaceous descent through Penrhyndeudraeth to rejoin the A487 at the crossroads in the middle of the village (52°55′47″N 4°03′59″W / 52.9298°N 4.0664°W).

Foryd Bay (Welsh: Y Foryd or Bae'r Foryd) is a tidal bay in Gwynedd, Wales. It is located at the south-western end of the Menai Straits, about two miles south-west of Caernarfon. Several rivers flow into the bay and there are large areas of mudflats and salt marsh. A shingle spit partly blocks the mouth of the bay. At the north-western end is Fort Belan, built during the 18th century.

The bay has been designated a Site of Special Scientific Interest and in 1994 it became a Local Nature Reserve because of its importance for wildlife. Many birds visit in winter and during migration including large numbers of wildfowl and waders such as Wigeon which peak at over 3000 birds. Notable species include Brent Goose, Jack Snipe, Spotted Redshank and Greenshank. Terns roost at the mouth of the bay.

Abermenai Point is a headland in the southeast of the island of Anglesey in Wales. It is the southernmost point of the island and is the northern point of the western entrance of the Menai Strait.

The headland is mainly composed of sand dunes at the end of Newborough Warren and therefore has no road leading up to or onto it. The nearest major public road, along which a public bus runs is the A4080 at Newborough. Due to its exposed location and the nature of the straits the Ordnance Survey map for the point carries a warning "Public Rights of Way to Abermenai Point can be dangerous under tidal conditions."

The earliest recorded ferry crossing route from the island to the mainland ran from the point to the site at which Fort Belan now sits. Records in the late 11th century relating to the then King of Gwynedd, Gruffudd ap Cynan state that a ferryman was employed there and ferry houses at both locations have been recorded throughout history. In 1725, Daniel Defoe, the author of novels such as "Robinson Crusoe" used the crossing on his way to Holyhead. The ferry ceased to run in the mid-19th century and by the 1940s almost all trace of it had disappeared. The decline of the ferry service was almost certainly due to the construction between 1846 and 1850 of the Britannia Bridge further east up the Strait which brought the railway to the island.

The Bangor and Carnarvon Railway was a railway connecting Caernarvon railway station (terminus of the Carnarvonshire Railway from Afon Wen) with Bangor in Caernarfonshire, Wales, on the Chester and Holyhead Railway (C&HR).

Castell Bryn Gwyn is a prehistoric site on the Isle of Anglesey, west of Brynsiencyn. It is a circular clay and gravel bank covered with grass, still some 1.5m high and revetted externally by stone walls, which surround a level area some 54 metres in diameter. Its name means "White Hill Castle".[citation needed]

The original use of this site is uncertain although it may have been a religious sanctuary. Later Neolithic pottery indicates use in this period, and it may have been a henge monument at this time. The earliest bank and ditch belong to the end of the neolithic period (2500-2000 BC). During the Iron Age, the present wall was built, and it was refortified in Roman times and later.

Parking is exiguous; the site is accessible from the A4080 by a footpath. Another path follows the low ridge, southwest over stiles to the Bryn Gwyn stones, or northeast, past the site of the former stone circle of Tre'r Dryw Bach, some 800 metres to Caer Lêb where it meets a minor road with limited parking space.[citation needed]

Ysgol Syr Hugh Owen is a secondary school located in Caernarfon, Gwynedd, North Wales. The school was opened in 1894 and is named after the educator Sir Hugh Owen.

The school currently has over 900 pupils and is run by Elwyn Vaughan Williams. The former Segontium School was closed in 2005, with the pupils being transferred to Hugh Owen. The former Segontium School site in Llanberis Road is now occupied by the new court complex designed by HOK.

The school has many classes with pupils varied between the ages of 11-18. The school has a 6th form which allows children to stay in school for an extra 2 years instead of having to go to college.

Notable alumni include Mei Gwynedd and Osian Gwynedd from the band Sibrydion (formerly members of Beganifs and Big Leaves).

The Anglesey Sea Zoo (Welsh: Sw Môr Môn) is an aquarium, and independent research and marine education centre on the south coast of Anglesey island in North Wales. Anglesey Sea Zoo claims to be the largest aquarium in Wales, and displays over 150 native species.

The Bryn Gwyn stones stand about 280 metres to the south-west of Castell Bryn Gwyn, on the low ridge some 2 metres above the valley of the Afon Braint on the Isle of Anglesey in Wales. They are the tallest standing stones in Wales, some 4 metres high. In 1723 Henry Rowlands described them as part of a ruinous circle of eight stones, some 16 metres across. An account of 1797 says that "ignorant country people supposing money was hid under them tore them up" and today only two stones, one slab and one pillar, stand in a modern field bank. Nothing else is visible on the ground, but recent excavation has found three pits of standing stones, two containing stone stumps, consistent with the record by Rowlands. One other standing stone was not part of the circle. A public footpath runs past the stones from Bryngwyn-mawr on the A4080 road, continuing north-east past Castell Bryn Gwyn and some 800 metres further to Caer Lêb.

From the Bryn Gwyn Stones the midsummer sun rises over the centre of Castell Bryn Gwyn.

Further to the north-east at Tre'r Dryw Bach, another large stone circle was reported by 18th century visitors but has since been cleared away.


The Caernarfon Mithraeum is a Roman Temple to the Roman god Mithras (or a mithraeum). The temple was located 137 metres north-east of the Roman castra of Segontium on the outskirts of modern Caernarfon in Gwynedd, Wales.

The remains were discovered by accident on 2 April 1958 and excavated by the National Museum of Wales in August of the following year under the direction of George Boon. The site was found to be already damaged by a sewer trench which cut across the anteroom and had removed part of the southeast corner, but the majority of the temple could be excavated. The excavators noted the site was quite marshy and this suggested that a stream had once flowed close to the temple at the bottom of the shallow valley. Unfortunately the marshy conditions caused the mechanical excavator to frequently fall into the excavation, causing further damage.

Coleg Menai (English: Menai College) is a further education college located in Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales. The college also has campuses in Llangefni (53°15′26″N 4°17′43″W / 53.2571°N 4.2953°W) and Caernarfon (53°08′21″N 4°16′29″W / 53.1391°N 4.2746°W).

The college provides a range of academic and vocational courses including A levels, Apprenticeships, ESOL programmes and Access courses. It also offers some higher education courses in conjunction with Bangor University, Glyndŵr University and the University of Glamorgan.

On April 2, 2012, Coleg Menai College became part of the Llandrillo group creating the largest college in Wales.